13 September 2007The Independent Communications Authority of SA (Icasa) this week awarded new broadcasting licences to Telkom Media, e-SAT, On Digital Media and Walking on Water, ending Multichoice Africa’s 12-year monopoly over the South African pay-TV market.Icasa said in a statement that it hoped increased competition would boost job creation, promote the involvement of previously disadvantaged people in the sector, ensure a wider range of content and increase access to affordable subscription television services.Multichoice South Africa chief executive Nolo Letele welcomed the move, saying that competition would attract investment in the broadcasting industry and the South African economy in general.“It will also stimulate growth of the pay television market and ensure that consumers are provided with choice and more diversity of content,” Letele said on their company website.Business Day reports that Telkom Media, a subsidiary of fixed-line telecoms provider Telkom, has committed over R7-billion over the next 10 years to developing its platform, while On Digital Media – whose shareholders include the African subsidiary of European satellite services company SES – have secured over R1-billion to launch their service.e-SAT, which is part of JSE-listed Hosken Consolidate Investments, did not disclose what amount they would invest in their service. HCI also owns the country’s only free-to-air channel, e.tv.According to Screen Africa, Walking on Water aims to offer a wide range of programmes based on “Christian lifestyle principles” via satellite.Eighteen companies originally applied for licences when the process began in August 2006. Three applicants, including a joint venture between the South African Broadcasting Corporation and state-owned signals provider Sentech, later withdrew their applications.The regulator gave no reasons as to why the other 10 applications were turned down, saying only that details would be released within the next three weeks.SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Fiber is increasingly being added to pig diets, but digestion of fiber in pigs is inefficient and poorly understood. In a new study from the University of Illinois, scientists pinpoint the locations within the digestive tract where fiber is fermented.“We’re trying to figure out the specifics of fiber fermentation in pigs and what can we potentially do to increase it,” said Hans Stein, professor in the Department of Animal Sciences and the Division of Nutritional Sciences at U of I.Stein’s research group formulated four experimental diets, including a standard corn-soybean meal diet as a control. Different fiber sources replaced 30% of the control diet in the remaining three diets: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), wheat middlings, and soybean hulls.The researchers placed two cannulas in each of eight barrows, which allowed them to collect digesta from the end of the small intestine and from the colon, just after the cecum. Fecal samples were also collected from each pig. Values were calculated for apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent cecal digestibility (ACD), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD).“This allowed us to quantify disappearance of nutrients and energy through fermentation at every point along the digestive tract. We know there’s fermentation in the cecum, but we didn’t know how much there was. And we also were able to quantify what happens in the colon,” Stein said.The insoluble fiber in wheat middlings was fermented more readily than in soybean hulls or DDGS, suggesting it may be the best fiber source of the three. For the soluble fiber fraction, there were no differences among the diets.The site of fermentation for soluble fiber was either in the small intestine or in the cecum, whereas for insoluble fiber, fermentation occurred in the colon.“This is the first study to determine the different places in the pig digestive tract where fiber is fermented. We will use this information to conduct more research and determine if we can solubilize more fiber and therefore get more energy out of it early in the digestive tract,” Stein said. “We can potentially target enzymes or other additives to help microbes ferment more fiber.”The article, “Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach, and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls,” is published in the Journal of Animal Science. Former Ph.D. student Neil Jaworski and Stein co-authored the article. Financial support was provided by the National Pork Board.