Bacterial Flagellum Multitasking and Assembly Described

first_img1Evans et al, “An escort mechanism for cycling of export chaperones during flagellum assembly,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0605197103, published online before print November 6, 2006.2David DeRosier, “Dispatch: Bacterial Flagellum: Visualizing the Complete Machine In Situ,” Current Biology, Volume 16, Issue 21, 7 November 2006, Pages R928-R930, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.09.053.3Y. Magariyama, S. Sugiyama, K. Muramoto, Y. Maekawa, I. Kawagishi, Y. Imae and S. Kudo, “Very fast flagellar rotation,” Nature 371 (1994), p. 752.Finally we found a source corroborating the claim made in the film that some of these flagella can rotate at 100,000 rpm.  Most sources mention much lower (though still impressive) values of around 18,000 rpm.  DeRosier cites a case in the 102,000 rpm range; we will reproduce this source as footnote 3 above for those interested.3    None of the three sources cited in the entry above mention evolution.  We have to keep saying that.  None of them, either, mentioned the fact that it is the intelligent design community that has brought these molecular machines to the attention of the public as examples of biological structures that defy Darwinian explanations.  They’d rather not touch that subject with a ten-foot propeller.    They should, though.  The more young people watching Unlocking the Mystery of Life, the more might become interested in science.  The more scientists interested in these molecular machines, the more funding might become available.  This is another way ID can stimulate scientific research.  What’s Darwin got to do with it?  Nothing but spin doctoring.(Visited 17 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Since the bacterial flagellum has become a de facto icon of the intelligent design movement, it’s instructive to see what new discoveries come to light on the molecular machine par excellence.  Two papers appeared recently.Ferry Boats:  A Cambridge team publishing in PNAS1 studied how the parts get to the assembly site.  The studied one of the many flagellum proteins, FliJ:We reveal that the essential export protein FliJ has a novel chaperone escort function in the pathway, specifically recruiting unladen chaperones for the minor filament-class subunits of the filament cap and hook-filament junction substructures….  The data show that FliJ recruits chaperones and transfers them to subunits, and indicate that this is driven by competition for a common binding site.  This escort mechanism provides a means by which free export chaperones can be cycled after subunit release, establishing a new facet of the secretion process.  As FliJ does not escort the chaperone for the major filament subunit, cycling may offer a mechanism for export selectivity and thus promote assembly of the junction and cap substructures required for initiation of flagellin polymerization.Slogan spin:  “Thanks to the new work of Murphy et al., we now have a view of the bacterial flagellum in situ and quick-frozen in time as if a flash bulb had stopped its action.”  David DeRosier wrote this in Current Biology2 in response to the paper mentioned here on 09/01/2006.  DeRosier included two of the stunning new 3D models of the intricacies of the rotor and stator.  Two other sample images can also be found at Caltech E&S (Volume LXIX, Number 3, 2006, p. 6), recently released for publication.    DeRosier’s opening sentences confirm statements made in the film Unlocking the Mystery of Life:The flagellum, with its complexity of structure and multiplicity of function, is a machine that boggles the mind.  While musing on possible phrases that might catch the reader’s attention, I was reminded of the memorable 1926 slogan for the Hoover vacuum cleaner: “It beats as it sweeps as it cleans.”  The flagellum self-assembles as it propels as it responds; that is, the flagellum not only pushes the cell along, it also responds to intracellular signals and it assembles itself.  It seems as amazing as the old Hoover did in its heyday.  But, I thought, the bacterial flagellum does not really ‘beat’; the eukaryotic flagellum, an entirely different machine, does that.  Instead, the prokaryotic flagellum spins, driven by a rotary motor at speeds of over 100,000 rpm in at least one species.  The torque generated by the motor is converted to thrust by the corkscrew-shaped filament or propeller (for a review see [4]).    Of the 40 genes needed to code for a flagellum, at least 24 produce proteins found in the final structure….After describing the wonders of this machine, DeRosier once again found inspiration in commercials: “Let us end with another familiar slogan but this time applied to the tomograms of the flagellum: ‘It’s the real thing.’”last_img read more

Research reveals Kenyan, Nigerian views of South Africa

first_imgThe skyline of Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. Brand South Africa’s field survey suggests Kenyans perceive South Africans to be imposing and aggressive. • Buy local to build South Africa’s economy• Stalled on the Trans-Africa Highway• National Development Plan: Utopian dream, practical blueprint• Want to grow Africa’s economy? Include women• Africa’s growth can stabilise world economyRay MaotaPerceptions of South Africa and its people can hinder or advance the country’s business progress in the rest of Africa. This was one of the insights gained from Brand South Africa fieldwork and other research in Kenya and Nigeria.The project, South Africa Incorporated or SA Inc, was created by Brand South Africa as part of its Africa Programme in order to uncover what local businesses face when trading with and investing in peer countries on the rest of the continent, and travelling to and living there.Dr Petrus de Kock, research manager at Brand South Africa, broke down the research report findings at the organisation’s Johannesburg offices on 18 September, at a roundtable discussion with representatives from South African companies doing business elsewhere in Africa.“One of the most surprising findings, to be explored in more detail in a subsequent report, pertains to South Africa’s creative industries particularly music, broadly the entertainment, and film and video production capabilities,” De Kock said. “The latter speaks to a strong people and cultural profile in Kenya and Nigeria that create a basis for sustained and expanded cultural contact.”SA Inc aims to uncover unique insights to help the organisation understand the environment in which Brand South Africa operates. For example, initial findings indicate personal interactions in business, social and government settings, De Kock said, often leave the impression among hosts in other African countries that South Africans are pushy, imposing and unwilling to listen to the authentic advice of locals and industry experts.The National Development Plan, which sets out the vision for the South Africa of the year 2013, posits expanded trade between South Africa and its peer African countries as a key long-term objective.“Since 1994 South Africa moved from being a pariah state,” De Kock said, “to becoming a key investor in and trade partner to the rest of Africa, as well as a holiday, shopping, entertainment and higher education destination. From a reputation, positioning and nation brand point of view, this project aims to fill some gaps in the national understanding of its profile in, exposure to, and range of interactions with the African environment.“This implies that whether South Africa wants to expand into peer African markets, or whether it wants to attract more investment or trade opportunities from those markets into South Africa, the fact remains that deeper insight is needed into threats, opportunities, strengths and weaknesses of the nation brand in peer markets.”The nation brand and South AfricaAccording to the report, a nation brand is fundamentally different from corporate brands. Although certain corporate brands may have multiple sub-brands, or a wide variety of component parts that feed into and support the “mother brand”, a nation brand encompasses a dizzying array of attributes, as well as factors that impact on the performance, reputation, and competitiveness of the brand.“For this reason Brand South Africa approaches the nation brand as a composite construct that aims to present a coherent image and country message to domestic and international audiences,” De Kock said. “This image and message is drawn from a vast pool of indicators, attributes, and unique cultural and economic features of the nation.”He added that a nation brand encompasses all the attributes, strengths and innovations a nation offers the world, in all its spheres of activity. These include business, arts, music, theatre, film, tourism, science and innovation, infrastructure, manufacturing, and governance.According to the 2013 Brand Finance Nation Brand report, which rates and ranks the brands of different countries, the total value of South Africa’s nation brand rose from US$222-billion in 2012 to $270-billion in 2013 – a significant increase.African Nation Brand RankingsCountryRankingBrand valueSouth Africa32$270-billionNigeria49$111-billionEgypt54$70-billionMorocco67$40-billionGhana80$20-billionKenya81$19-billionEthiopia86$14-billionTanzania88$14-billionUganda94$10-billionBotswana97$9-billionZambia99$8-billionFindings on South Africa’s footprint in Kenya and NigeriaUncovering outside perceptions of a nation are key to effectively marketing its brand, particularly for encouraging trade and investment. In July and August 2014 Brand South Africa researchers conducted fieldwork in Kenya and Nigeria to assess other African countries’ views of South Africa and its people.This revealed that Kenyans largely consider South Africans to be imposing and aggressive.“However, at the opposite end, the country and its people’s general openness is ascribed to an appealing culture and high level accomplishments in several spheres,” De Kock said. “For example, our political transition and democratisation; the capabilities and range of sectors in the South African economy; South African technical, managerial, manufacturing, engineering, and a host of related practical capabilities – these all impact positively on perceptions of the nation brand.”For example, Kenya revealed a positive reception of South African products and services, mostly in the food sector, as they are competitively priced and of high quality.According to the report, these perceptions stem from comments on how South African managers conduct themselves and treat Kenyans. This impacts on the reputation of South Africa and South African businesses in Kenya.On the other hand, South African companies’ perceptions of doing business in Kenya are characterised by wariness, a result of several failed attempts to invest in the nation.Perceptions of business and economic ties in Nigeria conclude that while South Africa has significant and diverse investments across a range of sectors in that country, Nigerian business people feel South Africa should be more open to investment from, and trade interaction with, Nigerian companies.Conclusions of reportThe initial fieldwork findings indicate unique nation brand reputational strengths in areas such as culture, music, business sophistication, infrastructure and political management of democratic transitions.On the negative side, South Africans are perceived as imposing, aggressive, and unwilling to listen to local advice.“From a business perspective it implies that more attention needs to be paid to the manner in which South Africans interact with African peers, and how market entry strategies are designed by incorporating soft factors such as business culture,” De Kock said.From a political point of view South Africa is seen as progressive, that it has strong institutions, and democratic credentials to underpin its constitution. However, internal developmental challenges, xenophobia, and misplaced perceptions about African expats in South Africa is a cause for concern in Kenya and Nigeria.last_img read more

2019 Feeding Farmers | Rob Wilson, Hardin County

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest For the final week of Feeding Farmers 2019, thanks to AgriGold, the Ohio Ag Net crew traveled to Hardin County where the rains from a night-before rain were variable, just like the crop progress in the area.Rob Wilson and his family raise crops plus a bit of livestock while staying involved in the local community. Dale Minyo catches up with him on how this year has been treating their operation in this video.last_img

Bail for man accused of lying about his religion for marriage

first_imgThe Jharkhand High Court on Saturday granted bail to Raqibul Hassan alias Ranjit Kohli, who was arrested five years ago on a complaint from national-level air rifle shooter Tara Shahdeo that he had lied to her about his religion and married her. Acting Chief Justice H.C. Mishra allowed Mr. Hassan’s bail plea on the ground that he had spent five years in judicial custody.Conditions for bail The court granted the bail on the condition that Mr. Hassan should deposit his passport, not influence witnesses and appear in the trial court on every date of hearing. If any of the conditions were flouted, then the Central Bureau of Investigation, which was handed over the case in 2015, was at liberty to move the court for cancellation of bail, the court ruled. The Bench also asked Mr. Hassan to deposit cash sureties of ₹15,000 each.Mr. Hassan was arrested on August 26, 2014, in New Delhi after Ms. Shahdeo filed an FIR against him at the Hindpiri police station here the same year, accusing him of marrying her after lying to her about his religion and physically torturing her. Ms. Shahdeo hails from Ranchi and her marriage with Mr. Hassan, which was termed “love jihad”, took place in 2014. She had filed a divorce petition on January 6, 2017, and the principal judge of the family court, B.K. Gautam, had on June 27, 2018, granted the divorce on the ground that the accused had lied about his religion and subsequently subjected Ms. Shahdeo to domestic and physical violence and allegedly exerted pressure on her to change her religion. On July 27 this year, a CBI court framed charges against Mr. Hassan and four of his alleged associates in connection with the case. The charges were framed under IPC sections 120B (criminal conspiracy) and 212 (harbouring an offender).last_img read more

Hanover Farmers Encouraged to Take Advantage of Agri-Linkage Exchange

first_imgStory Highlights “I am concerned about you finding markets for your produce, and this is one of the biggest drawbacks that farmers have. You will produce, but some of you do not know where the markets are,” Mr. Hutchinson told the farmers. The Minister was speaking at the Hanover Agricultural Show, which was held at the Jockey Factory in Lucea, Hanover, on Saturday (May 25). Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson, is encouraging Hanover farmers to take advantage of the Agri-Linkage Exchange (ALEX) to market and sell their produce to organisations in the tourism industry. Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson, is encouraging Hanover farmers to take advantage of the Agri-Linkage Exchange (ALEX) to market and sell their produce to organisations in the tourism industry.The Minister was speaking at the Hanover Agricultural Show, which was held at the Jockey Factory in Lucea, Hanover, on Saturday (May 25).“I am concerned about you finding markets for your produce, and this is one of the biggest drawbacks that farmers have. You will produce, but some of you do not know where the markets are,” Mr. Hutchinson told the farmers.“At the Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) you can now partner with the Agri-Linkage Exchange (ALEX) to market your produce to the tourism industry,” he noted.Established in August 2018, ALEX bridges the gap between agriculture and tourism by facilitating trade between farmers, hoteliers and the gastronomy economy. To date, 549 farmers have benefited from marketing through ALEX.Meanwhile, Mr. Hutchinson also told the farmers that they should take advantage of idle government lands in the parish.“Hanover farmers, the opportunities for agricultural expansion are numerous. You are blessed with 2,000 hectares of arable lands, and a large demand for your products in close proximity. I urge you to use up the idle lands to plant more Irish potatoes, because they are in great demand,” the Minister said.“Just in case any of you know of idle lands belonging to government, I want you to get in touch with RADA. We are prepared to put all government-owned idle lands into production right away, and we intend to ensure that small farmers who need the land can get it,” he added.The Hanover Agricultural Show was held in collaboration with the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS) and the Hanover Association of Branch Societies.last_img read more

CMF and Google Canada announce partnership for iconic Canadian content

first_imgWhile discussions with industry partners continue, the channel aims to offer classic Canadian programming in various genres (drama, documentary, children’s and youth, performing arts) from both the big and small screens dating from as far back as 1995. By opening the door to rights clearances, Canada’s producers, unions, guilds and rights holders have each played an essential role in bringing this project to light.The channel will be managed by BBTV, the world’s largest Multi-Channel Network (MCN) and the third-largest video property in the world. Deluxe Toronto will oversee the digitization of the catalogue, preparing all content for high-quality YouTube video playback.“This is Canada’s industry working together to bring back cherished and valuable content for Canadians and the world to enjoy – on all platforms, anytime, anywhere,” says Valerie Creighton, President and CEO, CMF. “With the support of Canada’s audiovisual industry, the CMF is uniquely positioned to lead this innovative and forward-thinking project that both connects us to our past, and builds a legacy for tomorrow.”“YouTube is where the world comes to watch, and we are excited about the potential for this initiative to both preserve Canadian cultural history and share incredible Canadian content with new audiences both at home and around the globe. This will be a fantastic opportunity to make these iconic Canadian films and television accessible to all,” said Sam Sebastian, Google VP and Managing Director, Google Canada.“There isn’t a better way to celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary, than by making Canada’s diverse Film and TV content available for everyone to enjoy,” says Nick Iannelli, Senior VP Deluxe Toronto. “The pleasure we’ve had in helping to create some of these programs can now continue to be shared for generations to come.”“Canadian cinema has long been renowned for its quality and originality, and we’re pleased to be supporting this initiative aimed at helping audiences discover—or rediscover—great Canadian content from the recent past,” said Carolle Brabant, Telefilm’s Executive Director. “This initiative aligns perfectly with our commitment to building audiences, at home and abroad, for Canadian content on multiple platforms, anytime, anywhere. It’s also a wonderful way to celebrate Canada’s 150th!”“This is a wonderful opportunity to celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary, help revive well-loved Canadian film and television programming and share it with viewers at home and abroad,” says Reynolds Mastin, President and CEO, CMPA. “We welcome the opportunity to collaborate with the CMF and our members to help make this vision a reality.”“The AQPM is pleased to partner on this innovative project and looks forward to helping promote extraordinary Canadian film and television, from the French-language market, with Canadians and world audiences alike,” says Hélène Messier, President and CEO, AQPM. “It’s more than another channel; it’s a guiding light to what our audiovisual industry has accomplished.”About the Canada Media FundThe Canada Media Fund (CMF) fosters, develops, finances and promotes the production of Canadian content and applications for all audiovisual media platforms. The CMF guides Canadian content towards a competitive global environment by fostering industry innovation, rewarding success, enabling a diversity of voice and promoting access to content through public and private sector partnerships. The CMF receives financial contributions from the Government of Canada and Canada’s cable, satellite and IPTV distributors. Please visit http://www.cmf-fmc.ca/.About Google CanadaGoogle’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.  As a global technology leader, Google’s innovations in web search and advertising have made its website a top internet property and its brand one of the most recognized in the world. With over 800 Googlers across four offices in Waterloo, Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa, Google Canada’s engineers work on products used by millions of people worldwide everyday including Chrome & Chrome OS, Gmail, Google’s mobile apps and Google’s Ads and commerce infrastructure. Google Canada’s sales teams work across every industry in Canada with businesses of all sizes to grow their business online and make the most of the web. LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment The Canada Media Fund (CMF) and Google Canada announced today they have entered into a new partnership to launch a YouTube channel for iconic Canadian film and television content from years gone by. The project is in celebration of Canada’s 150th anniversary of Confederation.Working closely with Canada’s film and television producers, unions, guilds and rights holders, the YouTube channel is being developed by the CMF and Google Canada, with support from Deluxe Toronto, BroadbandTV (BBTV), as well as the Canadian Media Producers Association (CMPA) and L’Association québécoise de la production médiatique (AQPM). Telefilm Canada is also a key partner in this endeavor, providing financial and promotional support.In collaboration with industry partners, the CMF plans to give beloved stories back to Canadians by creating an online hub that showcases and celebrates iconic Canadian films, television and talent. The channel will also be an opportunity to test new business models for catalogue content, while generating worldwide exposure and stimulating demand for Canadian content, particularly with young audiences, who access media primarily via connected and mobile devices. Advertisement Twitter Login/Register With: Facebook Advertisement Advertisementlast_img read more