Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York By Jeff Larson and Julia Angwin, ProPublicaAs politicians and counter-terrorism officials search for lessons from the recent attacks in Paris and San Bernardino, California, senior officials have called for limits on technology that sends encrypted messages.It’s a debate that has repeatedly recurred for more than a decade.In the 1990s, the Clinton Administration directed technology companies to store copies of their encryption keys with the government. That would have given the government a “backdoor” to allow law enforcement and intelligence agencies easy access to encrypted communications. That idea was dropped after sharp criticism from technologists and civil liberties advocates.More recently, intelligence officials in Europe and the United States have asserted that encryption hampers their ability to detect plots and trace perpetrators. But many have questioned whether it would be practical or wise to allow governments widespread power to read encrypted messages.To help readers appreciate the arguments on both sides, we’ve pulled together some FAQs on a subject that is sure to be hotly debated in the years to come.Q: Are terrorists really using encrypted messages to plot attacks?A: There’s mounting evidence that terrorist groups are using encryption, but so does nearly everyone living in modern society. Encryption protects your bank information, prevents your password from being stolen when you log into a website, and allows all e-commerce transactions to take place securely.In addition, apps that send encrypted text messaging apps through Wi-Fi, such as WhatsApp, Signal and Telegram, have become increasingly commonplace in places where text messaging is expensive.One piece of evidence that terror networks are using encrypted messages surfaced in a recent issue of ISIS’s Dabiq magazine,where the group listed a contact number in Telegram. Soon after,Telegram shut down many ISIS-connected groups using its service. And earlier this year, a West Point researcher found copies of an encryption manual designed for journalists and activists on an Internet forum linked to ISIS.Intelligence officials have said that the planner of the Paris terrorist attacks used encryption technology, but police also found that one of the Paris terrorists was using an unencrypted cellphone.Q: Are Google, Apple, Facebook and Twitter thwarting law enforcement through their use of encryption?A: In the past few years, Silicon Valley tech companies have added layers of encryption to their cellphones and websites in an effort to assure users that their data is safe from both hackers and spies. That encryption has also made it harder for law enforcement officials to read what is transmitted by those devices.Last year, Apple made encryption the default setting for iPhones, meaning that all data stored on the device was scrambled. In an open letter announcing the change, Apple CEO Tim Cook wrote, “At Apple, we believe a great customer experience shouldn’t come at the expense of your privacy.”In congressional testimony this month, FBI Director James Comey said that encryption is now part of “terrorist tradecraft.” He cited an instance in Garland, Texas, in which two terror suspects were arrested before they could execute an attack. “That morning, before one of those terrorists left to try and commit mass murder, he exchanged 109 messages with an overseas terrorist. We have no idea what he said because those messages were encrypted,” Comey said.Q: But can’t the National Security Agency just crack any code it wants?A: It’s not clear how much encryption the NSA can break. In 2013, ProPublica and the New York Times reported on a top secret NSA program called Bullrun that was described in internal documents as being able to decrypt “vast amounts of encrypted Internet data.” The program started in 2011 and was the result of “an aggressive, multipronged effort to break widely used Internet encryption technologies.”Details of the project are not known. But the documents showed that in 2013, the agency planned to spend $250 million dollars to, in part, “insert vulnerabilities into commercial encryption systems.”Q: I heard that there is a “golden key” that unlocks all encryption. Is there such a thing?A: Not yet and it’s not clear it will ever exist. The U.S. government has been trying to figure out how to access encrypted data for decades. However, wiretapping a phone call is far easier than creating a backdoor into encryption technology.Last year, the Washington Post editorial board called for Apple and Google “with all their wizardry,” to “invent a kind of secure golden key” that would allow law enforcement officials to read any encrypted message sent by a suspect.It would be a tremendous challenge to convince the world’s encryption makers, many of whom live outside the United States, to give American authorities access to such a tool. And it would be an even bigger challenge to keep the master key secret — given that it would immediately become the No. 1 target of every hacker and nation in the world.To address that issue, a White House working group proposed a split key — where one half of the master key would be kept by the government and the other would be held by the encryption company. But the report noted that this approach would be “complex to implement and maintain.”Q: Are there less complicated ways to give law enforcement and intelligence officials the access they say they need?A: The White House working group offered three additional ideas for “backdoors” into encryption. All required manufacturing or software changes by U.S. providers and all involved significant political or technical problems.One idea raised by the panel called for manufacturers to create a special port on all devices that could only be accessed by law enforcement. Requiring a port would represent a “significant cost to U.S. providers,” but could be avoided by installing software that creates “a secondary layer of encryption,” the panel said.Another option would be for telecom providers to slip software that defeats encryption into routine upgrades sent to customers. Such an approach would “call into question the trustworthiness” of American companies’ software updates, and could be easily repelled by technically adept users.Finally, the working group suggestedthat telecom providers might be ordered to hack into their customers’ devices so that their backup routines would send unencrypted copies of all data to the government.Q: Will any of these backdoor schemes work?A: They all have flaws. A big one: Users could easily bypass all of the backdoor options by creating their own layers of encryption.It’s not clear that compelling American companies to allow backdoors would accomplish much. A significant amount of the encryption software used around the world comes from widely available “open source” products. “There may be no central authority” for the government to negotiate with, the White House said in its report.And even when there is a company to negotiate with, the government has not had luck getting access to encryption keys. Two years ago, for example, the FBI tried and failed to get access to encryption keys from Snowden’s email provider, Lavabit.Ladar Levison, Lavabit’s owner, “provided the FBI with an 11-page printout containing largely illegible characters in 4-point type” of the keys and then shut down the entire email service.Most importantly, the United States isn’t the only country in the world with legal power over technology companies. For example, many cellphones used in the United States are manufactured in China, which could also demand backdoor access for its intelligence and law enforcement authorities. The White House report warns that “any U.S. proposed solution will be adopted by other countries.”Q: So what is the government proposing?A: The short answer is that the government has quietly dropped its requests for a backdoor.Last year, in a speech at the Brookings Institution, FBI Director Comey called for a “regulatory or legislative fix” to the problem of law enforcement access to encrypted communications, which was widely interpreted as calling for legislation to require encryption backdoors.But after his proposal prompted a backlash from technologists, Comey has softened his tone. In July, he told a Senate panel that “there has not yet been a decision whether to seek legislation” about requiring companies to provide access to encrypted data.And in Wednesday’s testimony, he told a Senate panel that “the administration has decided not to seek a legislative remedy at this time.” California Sen. Dianne Feinstein suggested that she is going to seek legislation. “If there is conspiracy going on over the Internet, that encryption ought to be able to be pierced,” she said at the hearing.On Thursday, privacy advocates visited the White House to discuss a petition they submitted in support of strong encryption. Kevin Bankston, director of the Open Technology Institute, who attended the meeting, said that administration officials said they “would like to move beyond this debate” and start discussing “how to adapt to strong encryption rather than fighting it.”ProPublica is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom. Sign up for their newsletter.
Many credit unions are marketing meaningless, stale brands.Simply look at some of the brand messages credit unions push in their marketing today. One claims to be the “friendly place,” while another boasts the length of time it’s been serving the community, and then there’s the one telling everyone the credit union “stands prepared” to be the member’s “business partner” because it now offers business loans. (Yawn.) True? Yes. Noteworthy or unique? No.Promoting such weak brands is a waste of marketing dollars and actually does the brand more harm than good, because it tells current and potential members that the credit union has nothing special to offer beyond the standard products and services that can be found at just about any financial institution. continue reading » ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
In the United Kingdom, 41 percent of respondents have a favorable opinion of the US, the lowest percentage registered in any Pew Research Center survey there. In France, only 31 percent see the US positively, matching the grim ratings from March 2003, at the height of US-France tensions over the Iraq War.Germans give the US particularly low marks on the survey: 26 percent rate the US favorably, similar to the 25 percent in the same March 2003 poll.The US’ global reputation rebounded after the Iraq war and following the election of Democratic president Barack Obama. In France in 2009 for instance, the US favorability rating reached 75 percent.Data from Pew Research Center also shows that the US’ favorability rating drop from last year’s figures in all 13 countries surveyed. The erratic style of United States President Donald Trump’s leadership and his administration’s mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has infected 6.7 million people and killed more than 197,000 in the country, has battered the superpower nation’s standing in the world, sending its favorability rating in some countries to an all-time low, a fresh Pew Research Center survey has found.The public opinion survey, conducted in 13 countries by interviewing more than 13,000 people between June 10 and Aug. 3, found that 83 percent of respondents have no confidence in the leadership of President Trump, while only 34 percent express a favorable opinion of the US.The US’ reputation took a serious hit especially in Europe, the country’s traditional ally. Part of the decline over the past year is linked to how the US has handled the COVID-19 pandemic, Pew Research Center director for global attitude research Richard Wike said in a press briefing on Tuesday.”People have admired the US for its scientific achievement and technology, and this public health challenge came along and people thought the US could deal well with this big public health challenge,” Wike said.Wike added that the world viewed Trump’s personal attributes and leadership qualities in a negative light.”People say he was intolerant, he wasn’t well qualified, he was arrogant, dangerous and that’s part of the story why he has the lower rating.”Also, some of Trump’s isolationist policies, including withdrawing from the Iran Nuclear Deal, the Paris Climate Accord and a number of free trade agreements, has further damaged the US’ standing in the world, he said.The survey also found that the public views President Trump more negatively than other world leaders.Among the six leaders included in the survey, Angela Merkel receives the highest marks: A median of 76 percent across the nations polled have confidence in the German chancellor. French President Emmanuel Macron also gets largely favorable reviews of 64 percent. Ratings for British Prime Minister Boris Johnson are roughly split.In this “most-trusted leader” category, Trump, with an 83 percent disapproval rating, lands below Chinese Premiere Xi Jinping with 78 percent and Russian President Vladimir Putin, who only got a 23 percent approval rating.The only positive review that President Trump received was from Europeans who have favorable views of right-wing populist parties.For instance, supporters of Spain’s Vox party are likely to view Trump in a positive light: 45 percent are confident in his ability to handle international affairs. In Germany, 34 percent in the far-right party Alternative for Germany (AfD) gave a positive review of Trump, while in the UK, 33 percent of the Brexit Party views the Republican president in a favorable light.(Left to right) Foreign Affairs Minister of Bahrain Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani, Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, US President Donald Trump, and Foreign Affairs Minister of the United Arab Emirates Abdullah bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan participate in the signing ceremony of the Abraham Accords on the South Lawn of the White House on September 15, 2020 in Washington, DC. (Agence France Presse/Alex Wong/Getty Images)Some of the efforts Trump made to improve his standing in the world, including his attempt to broker a peace deal in the Middle East, which recently materialized in the normalization between Israel and Arab countries like Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates, could only do so much to undo some of damages that he had exacted in international politics.”We have seen negative ratings in Jordan over the years, pretty low ratings in the Palestinian territory and from some other countries in the region […] in the past two decades, the reviews have been negative toward the United States,” he said.The new Pew Poll is devastating for how the world sees us. Confidence in the U.S. has plummeted to historic lows. The global public has even greater trust in Putin and Xi Jinping than Trump. We need new leadership. | Pew Research Center https://t.co/0GrmQDcryh— Nicholas Burns (@RNicholasBurns) September 15, 2020Former US Ambassador to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Nicholas Burns said the new poll was “devastating” and the country needed a new leadership to undo whatever damages Trump had wrought upon the US’ standing in the world.”Confidence in the US has plummeted to historic lows. The global public has even greater trust in Putin and Xi Jinping than Trump,” he said.Topics :
However, he noted that it was highly advisable to add an extra layer inside of a cloth mask to ensure a higher degree of protection.Furthermore, a cloth mask may only be used for a maximum of three hours, at which point the wearer must replace the mask, given that the material tends to absorb droplets from the mouth, he added.Read also: Government to step up mask-wearing campaign amid rising COVID-19 casesAchmad went on to advise the public against wearing masks made of neoprene fabric – often marketed as “scuba” masks – as well as multifunctional headwear or buff masks. “[Scuba and buff masks] do not meet the [health] requirements.”According to the ministry, the chance of COVID-19 contagion might be reduced to as low as 1.5 percent when both the virus carrier and a healthy individual wear masks.The ministry’s mask-wearing policy has previously become a major point of contention, however, when Minister Terawan Agus Putranto initially only advised sick people to wear masks amid the rush of panic-buying at the onset of the pandemic.At the time of writing, the ministry’s office in Kuningan, South Jakarta is the largest virus cluster in the capital.Topics : The Health Ministry has called on the public to use only masks that actually protect them against the coronavirus, explaining that not all masks are made equal.The ministry’s disease control and prevention general director, Achmad Yurianto, said in a statement issued on Monday that three types of masks were specifically designed to prevent the wearer from transmitting and contracting diseases, including COVID-19.“One is the N95 mask, a standard-issue mask typically worn by health workers who directly handle viruses in the laboratory. The others are the surgical mask and cloth mask,” said Achmad.
Infrastructure, Press Release Governor Tom Wolf announced the investment of $66 million for 11 drinking water, wastewater and stormwater projects across nine counties through the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority (PENNVEST).“Clean, reliable water systems serve as a vital link to the continued recovery and growth of our communities,” said Gov. Wolf. “Ensuring that Pennsylvania’s citizens have access to safe and secure infrastructure is a fundamental responsibility of government, particularly as we continue to address the health and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.”The funding for these projects originates from a combination of state funds approved by voters, Growing Greener, Marcellus Legacy funds, federal grants to PENNVEST from the Environmental Protection Agency and recycled loan repayments from previous PENNVEST funding awards. Funds for these projects are disbursed after expenses for work are paid and receipts are submitted to PENNVEST for review.“Local communities across the commonwealth continue to face tough choices every day as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic,” said Gov. Wolf. “Investing in community infrastructure improvements like these projects demonstrates the strong commitment that we share to rebuild and grow our great commonwealth.”A list of project summaries follows:Drinking Water ProjectsBedford CountyBedford Township Municipal Authority – received a $5,223,140 loan to replace 8,500 feet of existing waterline and connect new service with 10,150 feet of additional water line, while also replacing the finished water storage tank. The project will increase reliability by eliminating water service interruptions and ensuring stable connections to underserved communities in the service area.Berks CountyFleetwood Borough – received a $3,500,000 loan to replace approximately 8,250 feet of ductile iron and cement-lined piping. The project will replace service lines that are at the end of useful life and increase reliability for nearly 1,800 residents.Mifflin CountyAllensville Municipal Authority – received a $371,950 loan to make improvements to a filtration plant, install flow meters and data acquisition systems and provide disinfection contact piping. The project will bring the system into compliance with a Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) consent order and reduce the risk of Giardia throughout the community.Perry CountyPenn Township Municipal Authority – received a $1,450,000 loan to replace deteriorating water tanks with a new 150,000-gallon, ground-level tank. The project will reduce exposure to iron and manganese and improve water reliability for customers in the service area.Somerset CountyAddison Area Water Authority – received a $575,120 loan to install a chlorination system and water tank, which will eliminate the dependency on existing well pumps. The project will improve reliability of drinking water and significantly reduce water loss through transfer, which is currently estimated at 70 percent.Wastewater ProjectsCambria County**City of Johnstown – received a $6,517,110 grant and a $4,382,890 loan to replace approximately 26,000 feet of sewer line. The project will reduce wet weather overflows into the Stonycreek and Little Conemaugh Rivers, decreasing public exposure to untreated effluent.Lawrence County**New Castle Sanitation Authority – received a $19,132,800 grant and a $12,867,200 loan to make significant improvements to an existing wastewater treatment plant, including construction of a new anoxic tank and renovation of an activated sludge system. The project will meet mandated permit effluent limits and improve aquatic life in the Shenango River.Westmoreland CountyCity of Arnold – received a $117,555 loan to up-size existing piping used to convey wastewater to regional sewage treatment plant. The project will reduce wet weather sewage overflows into the Allegheny River and reduce impact to aquatic life. SHARE Email Facebook Twitter July 22, 2020 Governor Wolf Announces $66 Million Investment in Water Infrastructure Projects in Nine Counties **Western Westmoreland Municipal Authority – received an $11,025,000 loan to install approximately 18,000 feet of sanitary sewer line and manholes, while also stabilizing streambanks along local waterways. The project will eliminate regional stream pollution and address a DEP consent order.Stormwater ProjectsNorthampton CountyBorough of North Catasauqua – received a $618,229 loan to install 5,010 feet of new storm sewer line and associated inlets. The project will alleviate significant residential, business, and traffic flooding conditions.Westmoreland CountyPenn Township – received a $1,106,811 loan to install approximately 1,400 feet of new stormwater piping and retrofit work to existing retention ponds and spillways. The project will provide adequate drainage for a currently undersized system and reduce an estimated 5,916 pounds of sediment into Bushy Run each year.* denotes projects that are funded with Drinking Water State Revolving Funds** denotes projects that are funded with Clean Water State Revolving Funds
Greek company Energean Oil and Gas has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Israel Natural Gas Lines (INGL) that will result in $98 million of cash inflow for Energean. Left to right: Energean Israel Country Manager Shaul Zemach, Energean Group CEO Mathios Rigas, INGL Chairman Eitan Padan and INGL CEO Samuel Tordjman (photo credit: INGL)Energean explained on Monday that the MOU is for the transfer of title of the near shore and onshore part of the infrastructure that will deliver gas from the Karish and Tanin FPSO into the Israeli national gas transmission grid.Energean said it expects the detailed agreement to be signed in the first quarter of 2019.As consideration, INGL will pay Energean 369 million Israeli New Shekels, approximately $98 million. Energean expects 15% of the consideration to be paid and contribute to available liquidity in early 2019. About 80% of the consideration is expected to become available to Energean’s liquidity pool at hand over, with the remaining 5% due following an 18 month warranty period.The MOU covers the onshore section of the Karish and Tanin infrastructure and the near shore section of pipeline extending to approximately 10km offshore. It is intended that the hand over to INGL will become effective shortly after the delivery of first gas from the Karish field in 1Q 2021.Following hand over, INGL will be responsible for the operation and maintenance of this part of the infrastructure. Energean will not incur any charges or tariffs for use of this infrastructure.Mathios Rigas, CEO of Energean Oil & Gas, said: “The MOU is an important milestone for the Karish and Tanin development. The Open Access System infrastructure being built by Energean will enable connection of future gas discoveries to the system, further contributing to Israel’s energy security and diversity of supply. Our collaboration with INGL demonstrates the Israeli government’s support and commitment to the Karish Tanin project, from which natural gas will flow to the Israeli market from 1Q 2021.”The construction of the Karish and Tanin FPSO started last November following the cutting of the first steel at the COSCO yard in Zhoushan, China. Energean has chosen a newbuild FPSO based on an existing design and will adopt a spread moored system, which it believes reduces technical risk on the field. First production is slated to begin in the first quarter of 2021.
Kenyan artist turns rubbish into art A South African artist is using discarded bits of plastic to create his unique works of art. The individual pieces which are now sought after world wide by collectors and art experts are a way to spread his message of hope to the poor. CCTV’s Leslie Mirungu reports.https://youtu.be/aIFj5VNSJygRelated South African artist uses table salt to create unique images Egyptian artist creating unique lights from plumbing materials
The Batesville Middle School boys finished 2nd in the South Dearborn Invitational on Saturday. Lyle Oesterling finished 3rd in the boy’s race, followed by Eli Loichinger, 5th, Jake Chapman, 12th, Tacoma Nicholas, 16th, Talan Rowlett, 18th, Cole Pride, 26th, and Mason Jones, 27th.The Batesville Middle School girls finished 2nd in the South Dearborn Invitational. Ava Hanson won the girl’s race, followed by Emma Weiler, 8th, Kaylynn Bedel, 9th, Madelyn Pohlman, 12th, Megan Allgeier, 13th, Cora Deputy, 17th, and Ella Rowlett, 18th.Greensburg Invitational Results BoysSouthwestern Hanover 46Batesville 54Greensburg 58Madison 86Benjamin Rush 142South Dearborn 166Franklin County 177GirlsGreensburg 20Batesville 43Southwestern Hanover 104South Dearborn 116Benjamin Rush 126Madison 145Courtesy Of Bulldogs Coach Derek Suits.
Lawrenceburg, In. — Ivy Tech Community College and The Hoosier Hills Literacy League are partnering to bring awareness to the importance of literacy through a special lunchtime event from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Nov. 1 at the College’s Lawrenceburg Riverfront Campus.The event, “Books, Burritos and Board Games,” brings burritos from Chipotle to the campus along with the opportunity to play board games and purchase books. The event is open to the public. A variety of board games will be available for anyone to play. There will be free giveaways throughout the event.A burrito and bottle of water is $7. For Ivy Tech students, the cost is $4 when they show their student identification. Chipotle’s delicious house made chips and salsa will be available for $2, and new books will be available to purchase for $2 each or three for $5.Event sponsors include the Aurora Chipotle, Thrivent Financial and Ivy Tech Lawrenceburg. All funds raised support the literacy efforts of the Hoosier Hills Literacy League, a United Way Agency that enhances personal growth and individual livelihood by providing literacy instruction, community outreach and supportive resources to residents of Southeastern Indiana.Among the Literacy League programs are adult literacy classes, the Dolly Parton Imagination Library, Independent Study towards the High School Equivalency diploma (formerly the General Education Diploma) at the Dearborn County Jail, Write and Read to Reconnect with the Jail Chemical Addiction Program, tutor training and one-on-one tutoring.For additional information, contact Laura Priebe of the Hoosier Hills Literacy League at 812-584-8516 or email@example.com.
The family request memorial contributions to the Fairview United Methodist Church. www.haskellandmorrison.com Marcella will be deeply missed by her children: Linda Jones, Kathy Smith (Mark), Emerson Cole, Jr. (Mary), Stephen Cole (Carla Stillwell), and Randall Cole; 14-grandchildren: Cristina (Jones) Miller, Andrew Jones (Kara), Joshua Kinman (Celine), Sarah (Kinman) Oeffinger, Suzanne (Kinman) Cyr (Chad), Clinton Cole (Amber), Victoria Cole (Werner) Matthew, Jacob Cole (Rachel), Thomas Cole (Missy), Brandi (Cole) Rowley (Kyle), Kelly (Cole) Baudino (Nick), Clayton Cole (Selena Venezia), Benjamin Cole, and Samuel Cole; 20-great grandchildren: Christian Miller, Joseph Miller, Jadon Miller, Chandler Jones, Paul, Laura, Kendall, Landon Cole, Kaleb Cole, Bryce, Ariel Oeffinger, Keirstan Oeffinger, Terra Oeffinger, Leilah Oeffinger, Kylee Rowley, Cole Rowley, Brooks Rowley, Paige Werner, Preslie Werner, Jada Baudino, Liam Baudino, Malcolm Kinman, Stella Cyr, and A.J. Cyr; sisters, Margaret Alford Johnson of Tucson, AZ, and Wanda Garrett (Dean) of Columbia, TN and sister-in-law, Wilma Works Cole and several nieces and nephews.She was preceded in death by her husband, Emerson Clayton Cole (2014); son, Derrick Allen Cole (1974); son-in-law, Bill Jones (2010); grandson-in-law, Keith Oeffinger (2013) and Jim Miller (2017); sisters, Frances, Harriet, Helen, Mary Jean “Jeanie”, and Nancy.Friends may call 11:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m., Monday, October 28, 2019, at the Haskell & Morrison Funeral Home, 208 Ferry Street, Vevay, Indiana 47043.Funeral Services will be conducted at 1:00 p.m., Monday, October 28, 2019, at the Haskell & Morrison Funeral Home, 208 Ferry Street, Vevay, Indiana 47043. Mrs. Marcella Jeanette (Clemons) Cole was born on September 19, 1932 in Louisville, Kentucky, to Harve and Lillian Wortham (Goble) Clemons. Marcella was the third youngest of eight children, all daughters, which include from oldest to youngest: Frances, Harriet, Helen, Mary Jean “Jeanie”, Margaret, Marcella, Nancy and Wanda. In 1929, after the Great Depression began, life became very difficult for many American families. At this time, many families were split up due to financial hardships caused by the depression. The Clemons’ family was greatly affected by the Great Depression, as well, as it did not discriminate. In 1937, six of the young Clemons girls were placed into various foster care homes and/or the Louisville, Kentucky, Orsmby Children’s Home, with most of the children leaving their home in Louisville. October of 1939, at the age of 7, Marcella went to her last foster home with Harry and Golda Osborn located outside Fairview, Indiana, in Switzerland County, Indiana. A few weeks later, Marcella started grade school at the nearby Harrison School located on Aaron Road. Marcella enjoyed living on the farm, helping Harry with the farm chores of milking the cows mornings and evenings. Marcella attended and became a member of the Fairview United Methodist Church. She was baptized here at 11 years of age. Marcella was fortunate to have two of her closest sisters, Nancy and Margaret, placed in the nearby home of the daughter and son-in-law of her foster parents. The three sisters were often able to visit with one another due to the family ties of the foster parents. In 1941, Marcella attended the yearly Fairview Fair and entered the annual music contest. Dressed in cowgirl attire, she sang and yodeled the song “I Want to be a Cowboy Sweetheart,” winning first place, blue ribbon. She would always remember this event and tell her children and grandchildren in great detail about it with great excitement and pride. In 1948, Marcella began her freshman year at the Vevay High School. She graduated in May, 1951. During her last year of high school, Marcella met her future husband, Emerson Clayton Cole, of the Fairview area. After a short courtship, Emerson proposed to Marcella while they were in a boat at nearby Lake Geneva. On June 1, 1951, Marcella and Emerson were united in marriage. The wedding took place at the Fairview United Methodist Parsonage, officiated by the Reverend Wayne Robbins. Marcella’s maid of honor, as well as best friend, was Edith Mae Hatton. Emerson’s best man was Charlie Lohide. After a wonderful, beautiful trip to Niagara Falls, New York, the couple’s first home was made in East Enterprise, Indiana. June 7, 1952, Marcella gave birth to the couples first child, a daughter named Linda Sue. In 1953, Marcella, Emerson and daughter moved into the home of his parents, Harvey and Nellie Cole, located on Fairview Road. During this time, March 2, 1954, a second child, Kathy Ann, was born. In 1955, Marcella and Emerson moved into a house located near Bennington, Indiana. While living here, February 25, 1956, a third child, Emerson Clayton Cole, Jr. was born to the couple. Later in 1956, Marcella and Emerson purchased their first home located in Center Square, Indiana. Fourth child, Stephen Michael, was born on October, 17, 1960. The family spent several years at this home until they decided to purchase a farm in the fall of 1966. They bought the farm of Thelma Scudder on Edgar Scudder Road, near Fairview, Indiana. Marcella and Emerson were so happy to have made this purchase. They both loved the farm and various farm animals. Marcella and Emerson enjoyed harvesting an abundance of vegetables and fruits together for many years. In later years, Marcella joyfully took many of the garden vegetables and fruits to sell at the local farmers market in Vevay, Indiana. She loved speaking with the many vendors and customers. October 11, 1969, a fifth child, Randall Eric, was born. May 15, 1974, a sixth child, Derrick Allen, died in childbirth during a difficult delivery. This was devastating to Marcella, Emerson and family. Marcella enjoyed trying several things during her lifetime. At one time, she babysat children in her home. Later, she ventured outside the home and enjoyed working at her sister-in-law’s restaurant, Brown’s Restaurant, located in nearby East Enterprise. In 1991, Marcella was employed to work as a door greeter at the Aurora Wal-Mart. This job suited Marcella very well, as she loved talking with people and enjoyed making new friends. Marcella was truly a people person. Marcella was employed part time as a substitute teacher at the Switzerland County High School. She was so proud and happy to be with all of the children and employees there. She couldn’t wait to get that phone call to come in and fill in for someone. In August, 1993, Marcella visited her son, Randall, in Germany while he was employed there. She was able to tour 13 countries, including Rome, Italy, which she fell in love with. In 2001, Marcella and Emerson took a 50th anniversary trip to Hawaii. They both enjoyed the trip taking in the beautiful sights, delicious foods and great history of the islands. In 1993, Marcella took a trip to New York to visit her son Randall and tour the sites of New York. In 1998, Marcella found a lump on the side of her throat. She was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, a very aggressive form of cancer. Marcella underwent radiation and chemotherapy which held her cancer in check. Marcella traveled to Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York to ensure her remission. Proudly, Marcella often said, I beat the cancer. She stayed in remission to the time of her death. Marcella was a life-long member of the Fairview United Methodist Church. She joyfully participated in the many activities held there, singing songs for the congregation was a favorite. During her lifetime, Marcella had also enjoyed visiting many places within the states, such as the Great Smokey Mountains, Pigeon Forge, Mt. Rushmore, The Grand Canyon, California, New York and several other places. She loved taking many, many pictures of places she visited and of family members. March 21, 2014, Marcella sadly lost her life’s mate of 62 years, Emerson. Marcella remained on the farm after Emerson’s death until she moved to Ripley Crossing Care Facility, June of 2016. August, 2014, Marcella entered an apple pie baking contest and won 1st place. Marcella was very happy and proud of her accomplishment. She immensely enjoyed her family gatherings, preparing the best of meals. She took great pleasure visiting her family and friends. Marcella was proud to be a Christian, wife, mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, homemaker, gardener, and employee during her life time. Marcella was an excellent cook, especially apple pies. Her family loved coming home to visit and enjoying her fabulous home cooked meals. Marcella Jeanette (Clemons) Cole quietly passed away at Highpoint Health in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, Thursday morning, October 24, 2019, at 2:09 a.m.